What is G20 and How Does It Work?


In today’s interconnected world, global economic challenges require collaborative efforts and coordinated policies. The Group of Twenty, commonly known as the G20, serves as an international forum for major economies to address these challenges. 

In this article, we will explore the G20’s purpose, its functioning, and the key functions it serves in the global landscape.

What is the G20?

The G20 is a group of twenty major economies, comprising both developed and developing nations. It was established in 1999 in response to the Asian financial crisis, with the aim of fostering dialogue and cooperation among its member states. 

The G20 consists of Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the European Union.

Key Functions of the G20

  • Economic Policy Coordination:

One of the primary functions of the G20 is to provide a platform for member countries to discuss and coordinate economic policies. This coordination helps prevent currency wars, trade protectionism, and other actions that could destabilize the global economy. During the 2008 financial crisis, the G20 played a pivotal role in coordinating stimulus packages and financial sector reforms to stabilize the global economy.

  • Financial Stability:

Promoting financial stability is another crucial aspect of the G20’s agenda. The group addresses issues such as banking regulations, cross-border financial flows, and the supervision of financial institutions. To monitor and make recommendations on the stability of the global financial system, the G20 established the Financial Stability Board (FSB).

  • Trade and Investment:

Trade and investment are central to the G20’s agenda. Member countries work towards promoting free and fair trade, reducing trade barriers, and facilitating investments. G20 summits often provide an opportunity for leaders to address trade disputes and promote multilateral trade negotiations.

  • Development and Inclusivity:

Recognizing the importance of development and inclusivity, the G20 addresses issues like poverty reduction, sustainable development, and access to education and healthcare. Initiatives such as the Compact with Africa aim to improve the investment climate and foster economic development in African nations.

How Does the G20 Work?

The G20 operates through a series of meetings, including annual summits, finance ministers’ meetings, and working group discussions. Let’s take a closer look at how it functions:

Leaders’ Summit:

The most high-profile event of the G20 is the annual Leaders’ Summit, where heads of state and government gather to discuss and make decisions on major global issues. During these summits, leaders engage in formal and informal discussions, issue joint communiqués, and set the agenda for the G20’s work.

Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors:

Finance ministers and central bank governors meet periodically to discuss economic and financial matters. They prepare policy recommendations for the Leaders’ Summit. These meetings address topics such as fiscal policy, monetary policy, and international financial stability.

Working Groups:

The G20 operates through various working groups that focus on specific issues, such as agriculture, energy, and climate change. Experts and officials from member countries collaborate within these groups to develop policies and recommendations. These working groups play a crucial role in shaping the G20’s agenda and ensuring comprehensive discussions on key global challenges.


In conclusion, the Group of Twenty (G20) serves as a vital platform for major economies to address global economic challenges. Through economic policy coordination, promoting financial stability, facilitating trade and investment, and prioritizing development and inclusivity, the G20 plays a crucial role in shaping the global economic landscape. 

By operating through summits, ministerial meetings, and working groups, the G20 ensures comprehensive discussions and collaborative decision-making.

 As the world continues to face complex economic issues, the G20 remains at the forefront of global economic governance, striving for a more stable, inclusive, and prosperous future.


How many countries are part of the G20?

The G20 consists of twenty member countries.

How often does the G20 hold summits?

The G20 holds annual summits where leaders from member countries gather to discuss global issues. These summits provide an opportunity for high-level discussions and decision-making.

How does the G20 contribute to global economic stability?

The G20 plays a crucial role in promoting global economic stability through its focus on economic policy coordination, financial stability, and trade facilitation. By fostering dialogue and cooperation among major economies, the G20 helps prevent currency wars, trade protectionism, and other actions that could destabilize the global economy.

What is the purpose of the G20? 

The G20 aims to foster dialogue and cooperation among major economies to address global economic challenges. It focuses on economic policy coordination, financial stability, trade and investment, and development and inclusivity.

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